Front Matter| Volume 3, ISSUE 1, Pxiii-xxii, August 2018

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        Editorial Board vii
        Contributors ix

        Preface xxiii

        Myron Yanoff

        Section I - Optometry

        Optimizing Visual Performance for Sport

        Graham B. Erickson
         Introduction 1
         Assessment options 2
         Refractive options 5
        Myopia 5
        Astigmatism 5
        Hyperopia 5
        Anisometropia 6
         Filter options 8
        Neutral gray 8
        Yellow-brown range 8
        Green range 9
        Red range 9
        Blue range 9
        Polarized filters 9
         Nutrition options 10
        Visual effects 10
        Neural effects 10
        Athlete recommendations 11
         Sports vision training 11
        Component skill training 12
        Naturalistic and virtual reality training 13
         Traumatic brain injury in sport 16
         Summary 16

        Artificial Intelligence and Its Applications in Vision and Eye Care

        Louis J. Catania and Ernst Nicolitz
         Prologue 21
         Introduction 22
         What is artificial intelligence? 23
        Comparing artificial intelligence neural networking (“machine learning”) with the human brain 25
        Visual system as an artificial intelligence neural network 27
        A practical, lighthearted illustration of artificial intelligence and an expert system (or “how a great steak and artificial intelligence can save you money”) 28
         Applications of artificial intelligence and robotics in vision and eye care 29
        Vision, refractive care, and blindness prevention 29
        Cornea and ocular surface 30
        Anterior segment 31
        Retina 31
        Glaucoma and neuro-ophthalmic disorders 32
        Immunotherapy, genetics, and stem cell therapies 32
         Robotic interfacing 33
         Practical suggestions and planning for artificial intelligence and robotics in clinical environments 33
         Summary 35

        Vision Therapy and Virtual Reality Applications

        Dan L. Fortenbacher, Alyssa Bartolini, Brian Dornbos, and Tuan Tran
         Introduction 39
        The evolution of vision therapy for binocular dysfunction 40
        The efficacy of vision therapy 41
         The role of vision therapy in binocular vision dysfunction 41
        Importance of office-based vision therapy with home-based support activities 46
         Problems with home-based models: boredom and poor compliance 48
         Virtual reality in vision therapy: past, present, and future 50
        History of virtual reality 50
        Current applications of virtual reality in vision therapy 51
        How virtual reality works 52
         Virtual reality in vision therapy used in vision rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury or mild traumatic brain injury 54
         Future of virtual reality in vision therapy 55
         Summary 55

        Section II - Pediatric

        Prediction Models for Retinopathy of Prematurity

        Lisa Lin and Gil Binenbaum
         Introduction 61
         Insulin-like growth factor-1, growth, and retinopathy of prematurity 62
         Prognostic model development and complexity 63
         Postnatal growth-based retinopathy of prematurity models 64
         Weight, insulin-like growth factor-1, neonatal retinopathy model 65
         ROPScore 66
         Premature Infants in Need of Transfusion retinopathy of prematurity and CHOP ROP 66
         Colorado Retinopathy of Prematurity model 66
         Sample size: an important limitation 67
         Generalizability: a second important limitation 67
         Other approaches to screening for retinopathy of prematurity 68
         Benefits and future studies 69

        Collagen Cross-Linking in Children

        Katie M. Keck and Erin Stahl
         Introduction 75
         Significance 76
        Corneal collagen cross-linking technique and procedure 76
        Review of published studies 77
         Studies reporting 1-year outcomes after collagen cross-linking 77
         Studies reporting long-term outcomes after collagen cross-linking (<1 year) 80
         Current relevance 82
        Management of ocular comorbidities 82
         Future directions 83
        Timing of treatment 83
        Efficacy of transepithelial and accelerated collagen cross-linking 83
         Summary 84

        Automated Vision Screening

        Ahmed M. Kassem
         Introduction 87
         Statistics of vision screening 88
         Guidelines and recommendations 88
         Automated vision screening devices 88
         Off-axis photoscreeners 90
        The MTI vision screener 90
        iScreen 3000 90
         Autorefractors 91
        Retinomax 91
        SureSight 91
        SPOT vision screener 92
        Plusoptix 93
        2 WIN 93
         Smartphone-based vision screeners 94
        GoCheck Kids 94
        Svone 94
         Retinal birefringence testing 94
        Pediatric Vision Scanner 94
         Visual evoked potential testing 95
        Enfant II 95
        Relevance and future avenues 95
         Summary 97

        Section III - Ophthalmic Pathology & Ocular Oncology

        Localized Toxicity from Intraocular Chemotherapy in Retinoblastoma

        Ramsudha Narala, Kaitlin Kogachi, and Jesse L. Berry
         Introduction 102
         Significance 102
        Intravitreal melphalan 103
        Intravitreal topotecan 105
         Present relevance and future avenues 108
        Dosing of chemotherapeutic drugs 108
        Risk factors for intravitreal melphalan-associated retinal toxicity 109
         Summary 111

        Topical Chemotherapy and the Evolving Role of the Biopsy for Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

        Christine Greer, Ashley Polski, and Jesse L. Berry
         Introduction 116
         Surgical biopsy and the management of ocular surface squamous neoplasia 116
         Advantages of conjunctival biopsy for ocular surface squamous neoplasia 118
         Disadvantages of conjunctival biopsy for ocular surface squamous neoplasia 119
         Is biopsy necessary? 120
         Nonsurgical diagnosis of ocular surface squamous neoplasia 121
         Nonsurgical treatment of ocular surface squamous neoplasia 123
        Mitomycin-C 124
        5-Flurouracil 126
        Interferon α2b 129
         Summary 133

        Evidence for Dose De-escalation in Brachytherapy for Choroidal Melanoma

        Bao han A. Le, Rima Patel, Richard Jennelle, and Jesse L. Berry
         Introduction 140
         Discussion 141
        Different methods of dose reduction 143
        Prescription dose reduction is associated with good local tumor control and visual outcomes 145
        Prospective trials of dose de-escalation in other forms of radiotherapy for uveal melanoma 146
         Clinical significance and future directions 148
        Clinical significance of dose reduction 148
        Need for prospective clinical trials 148
         Summary 149

        Section IV - Vitreoretinal Disease

        Recent Innovations in Drug Delivery for Retinal Diseases

        Peter Belin, Ashley Khalili, Robin Ginsburg, and Ronni M. Lieberman
         Introduction 155
         Pharmacology of the eye 156
         Topical 157
         Periocular 158
         Suprachoroidal 159
         Subretinal 160
         Intravitreal 160
         Treatment options by route of delivery 160
        Topical 160
        Periocular 162
        Intravitreal injections 162
        Intravitreal implants 162
        Reservoir devices 172
         Encapsulated cell technology 174
         Iontophoresis 174
         Electroporation 175
         Sonophoresis 176
         Microneedles 176
         Self-deploying devices 177
         Summary 178

        Advances in Retinal Imaging

        Jonathan P. Greenberg, Lucy Sun, and Ronni M. Lieberman
         Introduction 185
         Adaptive optics 186
         Quantitative fundus autofluorescence 188
         Wide-field imaging 189
         Swept source optical coherence tomography 191
         En face optical coherence tomography 192
         Optical coherence tomography angiography 194
         Intraoperative optical coherence tomography 196
        Handheld optical coherence tomography 196
        Microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography 197
         Portable retinal imaging 199
         Summary 200

        Geographic Atrophy: Current Therapeutic Approaches and Potential Treatsment Modalities

        Ahmed Bilal Sheikh, Andrew Lee, Adnan Mallick, and Ronni M. Lieberman
         Introduction 205
         Modulators of inflammation and the complement cascade 206
         Neuroprotective agents 207
         Vasodilators 210
         Laser therapy 211
         Stem cell therapy 212
         Implantable miniature telescope 213
         Summary 213

        Section V - Glaucoma

        Excimer Laser Trabeculostomy, Laser-Based Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery

        Michael S. Berlin, Gaithrri Shanmuganathan, and Maayan Agam
        Video content accompanies this article at
         Excimer laser trabeculostomy 218
        Introduction 218
        Significance 219
        Present relevance and future avenues 221
         Summary 225

        Needle Revision of Filtration Blebs

        Alfred M. Solish
        Video content accompanies this article at
         Introduction 229
         Needling for failed or failing filtration surgery 230
         Needling for bleb leaks 232
         Needling for problems with bleb size or shape 232
         Needling and glaucoma implants 235
         Needle revision techniques 236
        Venue 236
         Antimetabolites 237
         Complications of needle revision 238

        Glaucoma Refractory to Maximum Medical Therapy

        Jeffrey Freedman
         Introduction 243
         Management of glaucoma refractory to medical treatment 244
        What to use and why 244
         Sequential use of glaucoma procedures used in glaucoma refractory to medical therapy 247
        Laser procedures 247
        Surgical procedures 248
        Bleb fibrosis 249
        Tube shunts 251
        Cyclodestructive procedures 254
         Discussion 255
         Summary 257

        Section VI - Neuro-ophthalmology

        Cranial Nerve Palsies: What’s New?

        Anita A. Kohli, John Woo, and Madhura A. Tamhankar
         Introduction 261
         Significance 262
        Anatomy 262
        Cranial nerve palsies 263
         Present relevance, future avenues, and conclusions 269
        Evaluation of patients with ocular motor palsies 269
        Treatment 274

        Section VII - Cornea and External Diseases

        Small-Incision Lenticule Extraction

        Majid Moshirfar, Orry C. Birdsong, Yasmyne Ronquillo, and Joshua Tanner
        Video content accompanies this article at
         Introduction 280
         Significance 280
         Applicability of small-incision lenticule extraction 283
         Refractive outcomes 283
        Efficacy 283
        Predictability 286
        Safety 286
         Postoperative inflammation 289
         Higher-order aberrations 290
         Corneal nerve integrity 290
         Corneal biomechanical strength 290
         Relevance/future avenues 292
        Postoperative enhancement 292
        Other benefits and/or limitations 292
        Complications 293
        Future possibilities 294
         Summary 296

        Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Keratoplasty

        Ijeoma Asota and Marjan Farid
         Introduction 303
         Significance 305
        The femtosecond laser technology 305
        Laser trephination configurations 305
        The procedure 308
        Femtosecond laser-assisted penetrating keratoplasty 309
        Femtosecond laser-assisted lamellar keratoplasty 309
        Femtosecond laser-assisted endothelial keratoplasty 310
         Future directions 310
         Summary 311

        Section VIII - Oculoplastics

        Nonspecific Orbital Inflammation

        Robi N. Maamari and Steven M. Couch
         Introduction 315
        Historical description and terminology 316
         Significance 316
        Pathogenesis 317
        Pathology 317
        Clinical subtypes 319
        Diagnostic evaluation 323
        Treatment 326
         Current clinical relevance and future advances 331
         Summary 332

        A Logical Approach to Bony Orbital Decompression Surgery for Thyroid Eye Disease

        Shirin Hamed Azzam, David Verity, and Geoffrey Rose
         Introduction 337
         History 338
         Practical and anatomic considerations 339
         A logical approach to orbital decompression for thyroid eye disease 340
        Fulminant active thyroid eye disease 340
        Inactive thyroid eye disease 346
        Orbital congestion: hydraulic disease 349
         Further aspects 350
        Extraocular muscles may enlarge after orbital decompression 350
        The choice of decompression 350
         Fat orbital decompression 351
         Discussion 351
         Summary 353

        Facial Paralysis: Diagnosis and Management

        Natalie Homer and Aaron Fay
         Introduction 357
         Content 358
        Facial nerve anatomy 358
        Etiology and presentation 358
        History 361
        Physical examination 362
         Facial nerve grading scales 363
        Periocular zones 363
         Ancillary testing 367
        Long-term sequelae 367
         Treatment 368
        Acute phase 368
        Intermediate phase 369
        Chronic phase 369
         Summary 371

        Section IX - Uveitis

        Autoimmune Retinopathy: Challenges in Diagnosis and Management

        Saghar Bagheri and Lucia Sobrin
         Introduction 375
         Significance 377
        Diagnostic criteria 378
        Antiretinal antibodies 379
        Excluding other diseases and the role of genetic testing 379
        Work-up for malignancy 380
        Treatment approaches 380
        Monitoring treatment response and disease progression 381
         Present relevance and future avenues to consider or to investigate 381
        Avoiding delayed diagnosis of autoimmune retinopathy 381
        Toward nuanced, accurate interpretation of antiretinal antibody test results 381
        Unraveling which antiretinal antibodies are pathogenic 382
        Going beyond antiretinal antibodies for the diagnosis of autoimmune retinopathy 382
        Toward more effective treatments of autoimmune retinopathy 382
        Role of adaptive optics imaging in autoimmune retinopathy 383
        Monitoring disease response 383
         Summary 383
        Autoimmune retinopathy: a diagnostic challenge 383
        Novel methods to characterize antiretinal antibodies 384
        Autoimmune retinopathy: a treatment challenge 384
        Treatment monitoring and duration 385

        Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of Uveitis

        Alejandra M. Maiz and Pooja Bhat
         Introduction 389
         The polymerase chain reaction 390
        A brief history 390
        What is required for the reaction and how it is performed 390
        Evolution of polymerase chain reaction 391
         Current uses for polymerase chain reaction in uveitis 391
        Infectious causes of uveitis detectable via polymerase chain reaction 391
        Noninfectious causes of uveitis detectable via polymerase chain reaction 397
         Sensitivity and specificity of polymerase chain reaction 399
         Advantages and limitations of polymerase chain reaction in comparison with other diagnostic methods 399
         Future of polymerase chain reaction in uveitis 401
         Summary 401

        Section X - Cataracts

        Intraocular Antibiotics as Endophthalmitis Prophylaxis in Routine Cataract Surgery: Current Practices and Controversies

        Kelly Williamson
         Introduction 407
         Antibiotic selection 409
        Cefuroxime 409
        Moxifloxacin 410
        Vancomycin 410
         Transzonular and intravitreal injection 412
         Comparisons, concerns, and current practices 414
         Summary and future directions 417