Review Article| Volume 3, ISSUE 1, P205-215, August 2018

Download started.


Geographic Atrophy

Current Therapeutic Approaches and Potential Treatment Modalities
      Age-related macular degeneration has a devastating effect on quality of life.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Advances in Ophthalmology and Optometry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Boyer D.S.
        • Schmidt-Erfurth U.
        • van Lookeren Campagne M.
        • et al.
        The pathophysiology of geographic atrophy secondary to age-related macular degeneration and the complement pathway as a therapeutic target.
        Retina. 2017; 37: 819
        • Fleckenstein M.
        • Mitchell P.
        • Freund K.B.
        • et al.
        The progression of geographic atrophy secondary to age-related macular degeneration.
        Ophthalmology. 2017; 125: 369-390
        • Kandasamy R.
        • Wickremasinghe S.
        • Guymer R.
        New treatment modalities for geographic atrophy.
        Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila). 2017; 6: 508-513
        • Danis R.P.
        • Lavine J.A.
        • Domalpally A.
        Geographic atrophy in patients with advanced dry age-related macular degeneration: current challenges and future prospects.
        Clin Ophthalmol. 2015; 9: 2159
        • Stanton C.M.
        • Yates J.R.
        • den Hollander A.I.
        • et al.
        Complement factor D in age-related macular degeneration.
        Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011; 52: 8828-8834
        • Rohrer B.
        • Guo Y.
        • Kunchithapautham K.
        • et al.
        Eliminating complement factor D reduces photoreceptor susceptibility to light-induced damage.
        Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007; 48: 5282-5289
        • Sacconi R.
        • Corbelli E.
        • Querques L.
        • et al.
        A review of current and future management of geographic atrophy.
        Ophthalmol Ther. 2017; 6: 69-77
        • Dolgin E.
        Age-related macular degeneration foils drugmakers.
        Nat Biotechnol. 2017; 35: 1000-1001
        • Ghasemi M.
        • Alizadeh E.
        • Saei Arezoumand K.
        • et al.
        Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) delivery to retina: an overview of current research advancements.
        Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2017; : 1-14
        • Zhang K.
        • Hopkins J.J.
        • Heier J.S.
        • et al.
        Ciliary neurotrophic factor delivered by encapsulated cell intraocular implants for treatment of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011; 108: 6241-6245
        • Taskintuna I.
        • Elsayed M.A.
        • Schatz P.
        Update on clinical trials in dry age-related macular degeneration.
        Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2016; 23: 13
        • Dugel P.U.
        • Novack R.L.
        • Csaky K.G.
        • et al.
        Phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled, 90-day study of emixustat HCl in geographic atrophy associated with dry age-related macular degeneration.
        Retina. 2015; 35: 1173
        • Mata N.L.
        • Lichter J.B.
        • Vogel R.
        • et al.
        Investigation of oral fenretinide for treatment of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration.
        Retina. 2013; 33: 498-507
        • Scholz R.
        • Sobotka M.
        • Caramoy A.
        • et al.
        Minocycline counter-regulates pro-inflammatory microglia responses in the retina and protects from degeneration.
        J neuroinflammation. 2015; 12: 209
        • Grunwald J.E.
        • Metelitsina T.I.
        • DuPont J.C.
        • et al.
        Reduced foveolar choroidal blood flow in eyes with increasing AMD severity.
        Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005; 46: 1033-1038
        • Cohen S.Y.
        • Bourgeois H.
        • Corbe C.
        • et al.
        Randomized clinical trial France DMLA2: effect of trimetazidine on exudative and nonexudative age-related macular degeneration.
        Retina. 2012; 32: 834-843
        • Augustin A.J.
        • Diehm C.
        • Grieger F.
        • et al.
        Alprostadil infusion in patients with dry age related macular degeneration: a randomized controlled clinical trial.
        Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2013; 22: 803-812
      1. Holz F.G. Pauleikhoff D. Spaide R.F. Age-related macular degeneration. Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin/Heidelberg (Germany)2012
        • Metelitsina T.I.
        • Grunwald J.E.
        • DuPont J.C.
        • et al.
        Effect of Viagra on the foveolar choroidal circulation of AMD patients.
        Exp Eye Res. 2005; 81: 159-164
        • Parodi M.B.
        • Virgili G.
        • Evans J.R.
        Laser treatment of drusen to prevent progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009; (CD006537)
        • Querques G.
        • Cicinelli M.V.
        • Rabiolo A.
        • et al.
        Laser photocoagulation as treatment of non-exudative age-related macular degeneration: state-of-the-art and future perspectives.
        Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2017; 256: 1-9
        • Owens S.L.
        • Bunce C.
        • Brannon A.J.
        • et al.
        • Drusen Laser Study Group
        Prophylactic laser treatment hastens choroidal neovascularization in unilateral age-related maculopathy: final results of the drusen laser study.
        Am J Ophthalmol. 2006; 141: 276-281
        • Complications of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Prevention Trial Research Group
        Laser treatment in patients with bilateral large drusen: the complications of age-related macular degeneration prevention trial.
        Ophthalmology. 2006; 113: 1974-1986
        • Virgili G.
        • Michelessi M.
        • Parodi M.B.
        • et al.
        Laser treatment of drusen to prevent progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015; (CD006537)
        • Luttrull J.K.
        • Margolis B.W.
        Functionally guided retinal protective therapy for dry age-related macular and inherited retinal degenerations: a pilot study functionally guided retinal protective therapy.
        Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016; 57: 265-275
        • Lek J.J.
        • Brassington K.H.
        • Luu C.D.
        • et al.
        Subthreshold nanosecond laser intervention in intermediate age-related macular degeneration: study design and baseline characteristics of the laser in early stages of age-related macular degeneration study (report number 1).
        Ophthalmol Retina. 2017; 1: 227-239
        • Chaikin L.
        • Kashiwa K.
        • Bennet M.
        • et al.
        Microcurrent stimulation in the treatment of dry and wet macular degeneration.
        Clin Ophthalmol. 2015; 9: 2345
        • Schwartz S.D.
        • Hubschman J.P.
        • Heilwell G.
        • et al.
        Embryonic stem cell trials for macular degeneration: a preliminary report.
        Lancet. 2012; 379: 713-720
        • Boyer D.
        • Freund K.B.
        • Regillo C.
        • et al.
        Long-term (60-month) results for the implantable miniature telescope: efficacy and safety outcomes stratified by age in patients with end-stage age-related macular degeneration.
        Clin Ophthalmol. 2015; 9: 1099